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SIERRA DE PINOS - Francisco de Cardona y Magdalena de Caravajal

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By jrefugioghermosillo - Posted on 06 January 2018

Hola prim@s,

Here is an essay I have written about these early Sierra de Pinos settlers. My sources are San Matias Pinos parochial records (provided by Mary Lou Montagna), and parochial and protocolo records found at FamilySearch and at PARES.

Manny Diez Hermosillo


Francisco de Cardona was born around 1569 in Mexico City, son of Francisco Ramón de Cardona and Leonor de Villegas. He was brother of Mariana de Cardona, baptized 1 Sep 1567, and of Leonor de Cardona, who married Juan de Armas, on 23 Oct 1594, in Mexico City.

In 1597, Francisco de Cardona was living in San Luis Potosí, when Alonso Jiménez sold him and Juan de Armas 28 mules. Both he and Juan de Armas are said to be arrieros (mule skinners). Note: I believe this is the same Juan de Armas who married his sister, Leonor de Cardona (and who are parents of Leonor de Armas y Cardona, wife of Pedro de Vargas Moriano); after the death of Leonor de Cardona, Juan de Armas married Leonor de la Vega Cortés, on 15 Feb 1616 in San Luis Potosí.

On 13 Apr 1602, in San Luis Potosí, Francisco de Cardona filed a civil suit against miner Juan del Valle, who had hired him to haul silver from his mines to his shop, and who still owed him 238 pesos.

Presented on 12 Nov 1603, was a map of a proposed town, “located 4 leagues from the mines of Nuestra Señora de la Concepción de Sierra de Pinos,” showing the layout of the town, with streets, a plaza mayor, and lots assigned to individuals. One of the lots was assigned to Francisco de Cardona.

On 05 Feb 1604, in San Luis Potosí, Francisco de Cardona, now the owner of a requa, or a pack train, sold 60 mules to Juan de Llamas, at 30 pesos per head. 60 mules seems like an entire fleet, so apparently, Francisco was getting out of the freight business, and my guess, reinvesting in mineral prospecting. His leap of faith paid off, because on 15 May 1604, he filed claims on no less than 11 mines, located in the Nuevo Descubrimiento del Peñón Blanco.

On 18 Jun 1604, in San Luis Potosí, Francisco de Cardona appeared as a witness in a civil suit between María de Espina and Alonso Carrillo. He gave his age as 35, placing his birth around 1569.

In Sierra de Pinos, Francisco de Cardona would live on Real de San Bartolomé Agua de La Pendencia, located at a crossroads between Peñón Blanco, Pinos, and San Luis Potosí. As a wealthy miner, he became prominent in his community, and over the years, appears as padrino for several baptisms and confirmations, and as witness to various marriages. He also owned a hacienda de beneficio (a mining hacienda), located somewhere in Pinos, and later administered by Diego Delgado "El Moso."

On 11 May 1614, in Pinos, his criados, Lorenzo and María, were married. On 6 Nov 1620, two more criados, Francisco and María, were married; Lorenzo and María were their padrinos.

Francisco de Cardona married Magdalena de Caravajal, likely in mid-1619. A clue to her origin appears in the 3 Dec 1649 marriage petition of their son, Juan de Cardona, for his marriage to Leonor Pérez de Mojica: one of the witnesses, Luis de Urdiales, declared that he was a 1st-cousin of Juan de Cardona. Luis de Urdiales was son of Luis de Urdiales and Bernardina de Arellano, also residents on La Pendencia; Bernardina de Arellano was daughter of Marcos González Obregón and Doña Magdalena de Caravajal, who would be the parents of Francisco de Cardona’s bride, obviously named for her mother.

The following year, the household staff was augmented with the acquisition of a slave: baptized on 27 Mar 1621, was Lucia, adult Negra Esclava de Francisco de Cardona. Her padrinos were Juana Díaz and her son, Diego Delgado “El Moso,” neighbors on Pendencia. One year later, on 20 Mar 1622, baptized was Tomasa, daughter of the same Lucia, Negra Esclava de Francisco de Cardona.

Francisco de Cardona died and was buried 28 Feb 1650, San Matías, Pinos, Zac. His executors were his sons, Juan and Miguel Cardona, and his wife, Magdalena de Caravajal.

On 15 Oct 1655, Doña Magdalena de Caravajal, widow of Francisco de Cardona, and now resident of San Luis Potosí, filed the necessary paper work to free her slave, Clemente, Mulato, age 2, born in her house, son of her Mulata slave, Agustina de la Cruz, “for the great love she has for the child’s mother.”

The children of Francisco de Cardona and Magdalena de Caravajal are:

1. Juan de Cardona Caravajal, b. 21 May 1620, San Matías, Pinos, Zac, padrinos: Diego Delgado y Juana Díaz su mujer, c. 06 Jun 1621, compadre Diego Delgado; m. Leonor Pérez de Mojica, im. 03 Dec 1649, San Matías, Pinos.
2. Miguel de Cardona Caravajal, b. 04 Oct 1621, San Matías, Pinos, Zac, padrino: Juan Pérez de Alanís; d. 12 Apr 1669, San Matías, Pinos, Zac. Witness on IM for Capitán Francisco Lisondo cc Juana Muñoz de Salas, 24 Dec 1662, San Matías, Pinos, Zac.
3. María Cardona Caravajal, b. 28 Jan 1628, San Matías, Pinos, Zac, padrino: Fray Alonso de Siguensa.
4. Francisco de Cardona Caravajal, b. 28 Oct 1629, San Matías, Pinos, Zac, padrinos: Pedro de Vargas y Leonor de Cardona su mujer; m. Luisa de Rodas, im 22 May 1673, San Francisco, Charcas, SLP.
5. Esteban de Cardona Caravajal, b. 30 Jan 1631, San Matías, Pinos, Zac, Padrino: Francisco de la Mota.
6. Francisca de Cardona Caravajal, b. 19 Mar 1632, San Matías, Pinos, Zac. Padrino: Don Juan Ramos de la Vega.
7. Diego de Cardona Caravajal, b. 02 Oct 1633, San Matías, Pinos, Zac, Padrino: Diego Salazar, Provincial de la Sta Hermandad.
8. Diego de Cardona Caravajal, b. 13 Apr 1635, Santa María de Lagos, Jal, madrina: Inés de Caravajal. The partida for this baptism is annotated: “y por no haber libro en La Pendencia donde se cristiano le asente en este.” Obviously this child was born and baptized on Pendencia, in Sierra de Pinos. He is likely the same Diego who was baptized, 2 Oct 1633.

Manny Diez Hermosillo
July 2017

Hola isloera,
I found Francisco de Cardona’s burial record among the extractions that Mary Lou Montagna did from the books at San Matias, Pinos. She scanned all of her notes to PDF, and uploaded them to her dropbox, which can be accessed here:

Manny Díez Hermosillo

Thank you so much for your reply! Could you point me to the right folder or document?, there are many. Excuse my ignorance, I've seen Mary Lou Montagna mentioned repeatedly, but I can't find any information about her. She's clearly a very important genealogist and researcher.

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