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Mulatta from Spain?

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By robros12 - Posted on 04 August 2014


I am a bit confused regarding the parents of my ancestor Francisco de Esqueda Acosta. According to his will (, his father Francisco de Acosta Esqueda was from Coria, Reinos de Castilla. He also mentions that his mother Anna Maria was from Coria, Reinos de Castilla.

Francisco de Acosta Esqueda married Anna Maria in Aguascalientes on March 10, 1627. He is classified as Español and Anna Maria as mulata. Is it possible that Anna Maria was a mulata from Spain, since her son stated that she was from Coria, Reinos de Castilla.,64894502,64894503

Do any of you know what can be going on? Are any of you familiar with this couple?

I descend from a daughter Francisco de Esqueda and his wife Maria Diaz named Sebastiana de Esqueda who married Juan de Soto. Juan and Sebastiana then had Onofre de Soto who married Cayetana de Estrada y Robalcaba. They later had Lucas de Soto who married Petra de Chavez. Lucas and Petra had Antonio Guadalupe de Soto who married Gertrudis de Avila.

This is what Francisco de Esqueda's testament reads:
26 junio 1708

…yo Francisco de Esqueda Acosta, hijo legitimo de Francisco de Esqueda Acosta natural de la villa de Coria en los Reinos de Castilla y de Ana María y natural de la villa de Coria en dichos reinos y vecinos que fueron de esta villa de Nuestra Señora de Aguascalientes de donde yo soy natural y vecino. Estando al presente sano y bueno...

Yten declaro para el descargo de mi conciencia que por fin y muerte de dichos mis padres quedaron en esta villa dos suertes de huerta y dos solares con sus títulos y de mas es < ? > dejando así mismo por sus hijos legítimos y universales herederos a Lorenzo, a Inés, y a mi…

Yten declaro que de la parte que me tocan tengo vendidos tres solares. Los dos Antonio de Escamilla, de que le hice escritura, y el otro a María García, mi sobrina…

Y para cumplir este mi testamento mando y < ? > nombro por mi albaceas al dicho mi hijo Baltasar de Esqueda Acosta y a Domingo Esqueda Acosta, mi sobrino…nombro por mis legítimos herederos a Sebastiana, Felipe, María, Leonor, Francisca y Baltasar mis hijos legítimos y de María Ruiz con quien fui casado y velado in facie ecclesiae según orden de Nuestra Santa Madre Iglesia, quien no trujo dote ninguno al matrimonio, durante el los hubimos y procreamos por nuestros hijos legítimos. Sebastiana casó con Juan de Soto, Felipe casó con Juana de Estrada y durante el matrimonio tuvo tres hijos nombrados Nicolás, Pedro y Cristóbal a quienes nombro por mis herederos en la parte que tocaba el dicho Felipe por haber fallecido. María casó con Nicolás López, Leonor con Miguel de Tejeda, Francisca casó con Agustín Ortiz y Baltasar casó con María Ortiz….

↑ Acervo Colonial Digital del Archivo Histórico del Estado de Aguascalientes
See also:

Caja: 5
Expediente: 3
Escritura 38
Hojas: 53F-55V
Fecha: 26 junio 1708
Lugar: Aguascalientes
Autoridad: Salvador Delgado Cervantes
Tipo documental: Testamento
Contratantes: Francisco de Esqueda Acosta

Thank You!
Roberto Rosales Villalpando

The term mulatto was overused and unless you really know the parents ethnicity its quite difficult to state what kind of mulatto they refer to. The word denotes a mix person usually but not necessarily of darker skin tone, in Mexico lots of mestizos where named mulatto, the term also was given to people of Moorish/Arab ancestry, to some Jews, (all of them converted generations earlier obviously) and to "true" mulattoes too. Thus a "Spanish born mulatto" is by no means impossible in this time period, but their true ethnicity is often difficult if not impossible to determinate.

In this specific case there is also a tiny possibility that Francisco de Esqueda didn't know his mother true origins, thus pairing Her birthplace with His Dad's, in either case the "casts" given often do not truly represent people's actual background, usually by putting together several siblings then we can have a slightly better idea of their origins.

Would be good to investigate the history of this period in Coria, it may throw a better light to it.

RJ Quiralte

maybe ana maria was a black female slave(sometimes i wonder if there's people of full african ancestry marked as mulatto).

Thank you very much RJ!
I will try to check Coria for more information. I am going to Spain at the end of this year and I will definitely try to visit Coria. I plan on going to various cities to find out a bit more about certain ancestors. I also believe that Francisco did not know the origin of his mother. I also think that his father might've brought her mulatta wife (either of African or moorish descent) from Spain. They then married in Aguascalientes where they later had Francisco de Esqueda.

Thank you very much!
Roberto Rosales V

Katy, I inclined to believed that in this time period a Black-slave marriage with a Spanish was the least common, and since they where "property" I believe the documents always mention the "warning" since any children would be automatically property too (as awful as it sounds). I do think they where many mulattoes from African ancestry though, in the documents I had seen (Durango 1600's) they are mostly slaves, while the "free mulattoes" seems to have a different ethnicity, I am convinced these later ones where actually of Middle Eastern ancestry (or mix with) something that would never be mentioned on a Catholic record.

Definitely a interesting topic, the earliest film for Nombre de Dios, Durango, opened my eyes in many ways regarding the life of slaves in the 1600's in this zone, which was tide to Zacatecas and thus Nueva Galicia.

RJ Quiralte

What a nice opportunity, are you going to check documents there too? Spain is usually more difficult to reach trough internet along, hope you find more about your ancestry!

RJ Quiralta

Yes RJ, I do plan on checking documents. I am studying for a year in England, and I plan in staying in Spain for a bit, at least for our break. I recently discovered the ancestry of my Olmos (originally del Olmo) lineage from Nochistlan. With the help of my prima Alicia Avelar Olmos (also member of Nuestros Ranchos) who is my grandmothers first cousin, we traced our Olmos family to Puebla, then to Mexico City, and then finally to Almodovar del Campo in Spain. I have been in contact with people from Almodovar del Campo who are willing to help me find more information on my del Olmo family. There is are still many Olmos and del Olmo in ALmodovar del Campo.

Let me share what we found:

Miguel Sanchez del Olmo m. Maria Rodriguez (Almodovar del Campo, Spain), they had Pedro del Olmo. I found this couple in "Pares" where they are mentioned as parents of Pedro del Olmo on a "proceso de Fe." I have suspision that they are parents of Pedro, since a grandson in Mexico would use the surname Sanchez del Olmo.

Pedro del Olmo m. Maria Diaz (Almodovar del Campo, Spain) they had Hernando del Olmo in Almodovar del Campo).

Hernando del Olmo m. Beatriz Tellez-Giron (daug. of Julian Tellez-Giron and Ines de Cervantes) in Mexico City on 06 June 1599. They had Pedro del Olmo. Julian Tellez-Giron might be a descendant of the noble family Tellez-Giron as mentioned in Rebecca Horn's book "Postconquest Coyoacan: Nahua-Spanish Relations in Central Mexico, 1519-1650," where she mentions three brothers Cristobal, Julian and Andres. They are, according to Rebecca Horn, sons of el Licenciado Tellez-Giron a Lawyer and a nobleman. I have a strong feeling that this is my ancestor Julian because he lived during this time, and one of his brothers as mentioned in the book, Cristobal, married a Cervantes too. Cristobal married Juana de Cervantes, they had Bartolome Tellez-Giron. So, this makes me think that two brothers married two cousins or sisters Cervantes. I need more info though to confirm this. I am going to look for Julian and Ines' marriage record in Mexico City.

Pedro del Olmo m. Ysabel Ximenes (native of Cuidad de los Angeles (Prob Puebla). They had Lorenzo del Olmo in Huejotzingo, Puebla, México on 01 Dec 1643.

Lorenzo del Olmo married Juana de los Santos (daugh. of Nicolas de los Santos and Maria Diaz) on 22 de mayo 1673 in Aguascalientes, Mexico. They had Ygnacio de Olmos chris on October 4, 1684 Teocaltiche, Jal.

Ygnacio de Olmos m. Antonia Sanchez de Amador (d. Joseph Sanchez y Maria Gonzalez) around 07 Apr 1706 in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

So, yeah this is pretty much what we found. Hope it helps others who descend from los Olmos!

Thanks RJ!

Is really nice once one can jump the "Atlantic paddle" on genealogy. I remember a couple of my ancestor's siblings married some family De Olmos from Etzatlán, likely coming from Zacatecas too, rare last name in my hometown though. La Mancha is also where my earliest ancestors came from (paternal side), quite a place. Good luck with your research!

RJ Quiralta

Por supuesto que llegaron Mulatos y Negros de España durante la conquista. Estos incluyeron tanto exclavos como individuos libres. Documentacion de estas llegadas la puedes consultar en PARES (, donde encontraras registros de mulatos libres los cuales viajaban como criados (no esclavos) acompañando a su patron. Sin embargo, existen exemplos individuos ( aveces junto con sus familia) viajando a America solos.

Por ejemplo, en 1573, existe el siguiente registro:
Título de la unidad: "Domingo de Zúñiga"
Archivo: Archivo General de Indias
Signatura: INDIFERENTE,2054,N.43

Alcance y Contenido:
Expediente de concesión de licencia para pasar a Guatemala a favor de Domingo de Zúñiga, mulato y libre, natural de la provincia de Guatemala.

Ocacionalmente las descripciones incluyen referencia al tono de la piel (e.g., Loros), y en otras ocaciones incluyen terminos que indican si el individuo nacio libre, o si adquirio su libertad.

Jaime R. Alvarado

Alicia Avelar Olmos de Carrillo
It could be a mulatto from Spain. In Spain, they also had and owned slaves, some of them were African slaves, others could be prisoners who had been designated as slaves and the prisoners could be from other countries as well, India, north African countries and even European countries. If they committed a crime and they were incarcerated, their sentence could be to serve as a slave.

I noticed this thread regarding my ancestors Francisco de Acosta Esqueda
and Ana Maria from Coria Spain. They are the parents of my Ines de
Esqueda. This thread talks about Mulatos and slavery in Spain, my question
is, did they really have slavery in Spain. Also, if a parent is a slave,
does that mean the child is a slave?


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